Contemporary Issues in Public Administration
- Administrative Reform
In most developing countries that have transformed developed countries, state administrative reform is the first step and priority in development. State administration has become a development sector (administrative development) as well as an important instrument of development (Development Administration). State administrative reform in these countries is generally carried out through two strategies, namely:
a. Revitalizing the position, role, and function of institutions that become the driving force for Administrative reform.
b. Reorganizing the state administration system both in terms of structure, processes, human resources (PNS), and the retribution between the state and society.
Another issue that develops in theory and practice in public administration is decentralization. The development of the issue of decentralization is related to assistance from foreign countries and institutions to strengthen the democratization process. This issue has been developing for a long time along with the flow of aid funds to developing countries. However, at this time the issue is getting stronger and felt necessary in the Indonesian context. Moreover, the relationship between the central government and local governments is dynamic and does not exist in a vacuum.
The ups and downs of the relationship between the Central and Regional Governments have always colored the life of the nation and state in Indonesia. Even since we became independent, various separatist movements that emerged in the regions such as PRRI and Pernesta were also closely related to the vertical distribution of power aspects. The upheaval was a reaction to the excessive centripetal forces in the administration of the country. After the fall of Soeharto in 1998, the relationship between the Central and Regional Governments was both threatening and hopeful. Become a threat because the various demands that lead to the nation’s disintegration are getting bigger. The centrifugal movement is still very much felt, even in the Helsinki MOU which resulted in the Aceh Governance Law. In my opinion, the domino effect of the centrifugal movement does not stop but will continue until a new balance point is found between the center and the regions. On the other hand, the post-Soeharto fall also gave hope to the possibility of a change in the power relationship between the Central and Regional Governments. This is proven by the enactment of Law no. 22 of 1999, which has been revised by Law no. 32 of 2004 concerning the Regional Government. These two laws have radically changed the nature of the relationship between Central and Regions in Indonesia. From a political perspective, Law no. 22 of 1999 can be said to be successful. reduce centrifugal movement that occurs in the area.
- Quality of Public Services
An issue that is quite important and adorns the literature in public administration is the improvement of the quality of public services. Although this is related to bureaucratic reform, in the author’s view this issue has a software dimension that should receive special attention in public administration studies. The development of the New Public Management paradigm has included elements and methods of the private sector in the Public sector
- Good Governance
By the development of the Good Governance paradigm in Public Administration, the issue of Governance is the key to the discussion in public administration. This is related to efforts to create access to public participation in public services and governance. This strengthening of participation aims to increase other effects in the form of accountability and transparency in governance, services, and development.
- Globalization and the Millenium Development Goals and ECOSOB
Another issue that is an external factor is the strengthening of globalization and regionalization. This has led to, among other things, a reduced role and state authority in policymaking. So that policies made by the government must pay attention to covenants, principles, and other international agreements that have been ratified. Included in this are for example international trade agreements, WTO, international agreements on fighting corruption, and the ECOSOB covenant.
- Public Policy
What is also an issue in public administration is related to the process of formulating public policies that must be better and more conducive to services, governance, and development. In this case, it is related to an increasingly participatory policy-making process with various approaches. The community as a recipient of the policy must be an active actor in public policy. On the other hand, this issue is also related to the potential processes that occur in Parliament about Government. The change from the parliamentary system to the presidential system in Indonesia presents its challenge