This period noticed a surge of analysis that borrowed theory and strategies from economics to study political establishments, such because the United States Congress, in addition to political conduct, similar to voting. William H. Riker and his colleagues and college students at the University of Rochester were the primary proponents of this shift. After attacking the administration of Federalist President John Adams in print, Thomas Cooper (1759–1839), political writer and ardent Republican, was tried for seditious libel in opposition to Adams before Federalist Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase (1741–1811) in April 1800. Republican political leaders strongly criticized Justice Chase, and he was eventually impeached (although not convicted) in 1804, after the Republicans received control of the federal government. Many Americans opposed a federal sedition law arguing that it violated the Constitution and infringed on the best of states to regulate free speech by way of slander legal guidelines.
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