The New Liberalism

The values Liberals and Liberal Democrats have emphasised agree quite well with their definition of liberal. First, and most simply, because there was no alternative agenda on offer. The electoral defeats of the previous decade and the withdrawal of the old Whigs had left something of a vacuum in the Liberal Party, in terms both of ideas and men. Many of the new radicals were able to gain nominations to parliamentary candidatures relatively easily, often being helped by Herbert Gladstone, who played a key part in placing radical candidates in winnable seats and supporting them financially. Outside the Liberal Party, the Conservatives were in significant disarray in the wake of the Chamberlainite split over tariff reform and the electoral disaster of 1906, and the Labour Party had no distinctive programme of its own and was in practice indistinguishable from advanced Liberals.

We used scores from 0 to 10 intentionally, in order to avoid an association between positive and negative values and L/C, especially during the self-assessment. Subsequently, we deducted five points from the reported values in order for the scale to correspond to the Am2007. Consistent with itself and with Mill’s Utilitarianism by taking a view of Mill’s view of morality and how it stands to other things. See Alan Ryan, ‘John Stuart Mill’s Art of Living’, in Gray and Smith, op. cit.

And yet many Westerners have convinced themselves that the American order is different. It is organised around freedom and democracy, consent and equality. This American-established liberal order was not like those that came before it, because “the most powerful nation on earth forsook imperial aggrandisement, instead using enlightened measures to make a world safe for market democracy in which people could find emancipation”. The US bound itself to an international system that constrained its power and thereby won it moral and political authority.

There is all of manufacturing and commercial activity for a start, not to mention home-life, work, public activities of various sorts, travel, and so on. Passage 10 has been brought together, and indeed does go together, with passages 8, 9 and 13. There we have it, in short, that an individual is to be left to himself in affecting others adversely — if he is not going against the interests or rights of others. The video below examines government health reforms and public health from 1875 to 1906.

Periods of the rise and relative decline of great powers have historically been times of increased tension, and usually of war. How can we manage this tension, preserve as much as possible of the liberal international order and avoid war? Chinese influence now reaches deep inside liberal democracies, distorting our democratic processes and trying to use financial clout and outright bullying to impose self-censorship on journalists and academics, a process seen most dramatically in Australia.

This is established by another work of his, a paradigm of clarity and cogency, A System of Logic. Nor, by the way, is this excusing of Mill as philosopher put in question by his `proof’ of his principle of utility. Its notoriety has been owed to the mistake of taking it for a deductive proof.